Invasive Alien Species

Effects include:

  • Reduced Growth & Regeneration, Mortality, Extinction
  • Chestnut blight, DED, gypsy moth, Bn Canker, EAB, ALHB, Beech Bark Disease,
  • Sirex wood wasp, garlic mustard, buckthorn, dog strangling vine, earthworms!

https://www.ontario.ca/page/invasive-species-ontario