Locally adapted and healthy is the ideal source of seed for any afforestation or reforestation program. Collecting can be challenging and often relies on our friends the squirrels. The other element of collecting in a natural forest is you need to be sure that there are enough individuals in the area for cross pollination so to avoid inbreeding depression.
Well Managed Stands
Natural stands of high quality or sustainably managed woodlots and forests.
Seed Production Areas
Sites often planted with southern sources to support assisted migration. This allows cross pollination to occur between natural surrounding stands and planted Seed Production sites. These sites are planted with young seedlings and are intensely managed (E.g. thinning, pruning, topping etc) for the purpose of producing seed.
Seed Collection Area Network
Forests/woodlots identified as highest quality in their local areas, contain the right number of individuals of a species of interest.
Involve a very intensive search for ideal individuals from various locations which are to be cloned and maintained for seed production. This is the most expensive yet has the greatest potential at producing high quality seed. E.g. Butternut Orchards and White Pine Seed Orchards managed by FGCA.